The 2013 Toyota RAV4 EV was introduced as a midsize crossover in the U.S. in September 2012. Toyota worked for two years with Tesla Motors to produce and sell a limited number of these battery powered electric vehicles (EVs). The three-phase alternating current induction motor has two components, a motor and a stator. Inside the motor, there is a steel shaft that has copper bars running through it. The stator is stationary and surrounds but does not touch the rotor. The stator creates a rotating magnetic field that induces a current in the rotor. That current then creates a second magnetic field that chases the rotating stator magnetic field. The result is torque created entirely from electricity. The RAV4 EV battery pack is mounted under the floor pan, where there is ample space and road clearance. The EV uses a repurposed Tesla Model S electric motor, “detuned” downwards from the S Model’s 362-hp to the RAV 4 EV’s 154-hp that produces 273 ft.-lb. of torque. The EV has an EPA fuel rating or 77 mpg combined (78 cities and 74 highways). The limited number of RAV4 EV have been retailing between $45,000 and $50,000). But make no mistake here: Toyota and Tesla are making a statement with this vehicle.